AP US Review
Study Questions


Use these questions to help you identify areas of content that you need to review. There are NOT free response essays – each question can be answered with a thorough, thoughtful paragraph or two. Try sorting your key terms note cards according to the questions.


European Settlement to the Writing of the Constitution


  1. Why was the Albany Plan of Union important?


  1. Why did Native Americans side with France during the French and Indian War?


  1. How did the Seven Years’ War directly affect the colonists’ growing discontent with the British?


  1. How did the Sugar Act differ from the preceding Navigation Acts?


  1. What forms did colonial protest take?  What steps were initially ineffective and what later steps proved successful?


  1. What choices made by Parliament heightened the pre-Revolutionary era conflict?


  1. In what ways did the colonies attempt to unite and/or share information? Why could many colonists rightly claim that the conflict was primarily a Boston issue?


  1. What were the results of the First Continental Congress?


  1. What was the significance of the “shot heard ‘round the world”?


  1. John Adams once claimed that 1/3 of the colonists supported the revolution, 1/3 opposed it, and 1/3 didn’t really care.  What types of people fell into each category?


  1. Which documents most influenced colonial opinion during the Revolutionary Era?  Why?


  1. How did the colonists win the Revolutionary War?


  1. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? What were the main events of the Critical Period?


  1. Why is the Constitution called “a bundle of compromises”?


  1. What were the positions of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?

Washington to Jackson


  1. What precedents were established by Washington during his presidency?


  1. What was Hamilton’s economic plan? What was Jefferson’s vision of the U.S.?


  1. What effect did the French Revolution have on America?


  1. What elements of Adams and Jefferson’s presidencies foreshadowed future conflicts between political parties and geographic regions?


  1. Prior to the 1804 election what problem kept plaguing the presidential election?


  1. How did Jefferson’s and Adams’ interpretations of the role of Vice-President differ?


  1. What failed strategies did Jefferson and Madison use to avoid war with Britain?  What eventually led to the War of 1812?


  1.  What were the positive and negative consequences of the War of 1812?


  1. What factors led to increased national growth during the first two decades of the 19th century?


  1. What factors led to the Panic of 1819?  Which of these factors would lead to additional recessions in future years?


  1. What was the Monroe Doctrine? How was it received?


  1. What about the 1824 and 1828 elections forever changed election campaigns?


  1. What programs by John Quincy Adams were doomed to failure?  Why?


  1. What actions taken by Andrew Jackson directly contrasted with those taken by Jefferson?


  1. What motivated Jackson’s economic choices?  What were the consequences of these choices?


  1.  What was the primary consequence of Nat Turner’s Rebellion?


  1. What was the connection between westward expansion and slavery?  How was conflict postponed?


  1. Why was the Whig Party created and what were their beliefs?



Civil War and Reconstruction


  1. What are the costs and benefits of a market economy?


  1. How did manufacturing and industry improve?


  1. What influence did the textile industry have on industry and society?


  1. What inventions and innovations opened up the West?


  1. What issues and developments altered farming? How?


  1. What is the relation between Manifest Destiny and Oregon, Texas and California?


  1. What were the economic differences between the North, the South and the West?


  1. What were the costs and benefits of northern urban life? Of southern rural life?


  1. What steps were taken to make Westward Expansion successful?


  1. What aspects of society did Jacksonian social reformers attempt to alter?


  1. During the abolitionist movement, who were the major participants and what were the strategies used?


  1. What major events occurred during the Polk presidency?


  1. What was the platform of the Know-Nothing Party?


  1. What were the most important catalysts of the Civil War?


  1. What were the intents and the actual results of the Reconstruction Amendments?


  1. What were the different proposed methods or Reconstruction?


  1. How did the South essentially recreate slavery conditions following the Civil War?


  1. In what ways was Reconstruction a failure?



Gilded Age


  1. By what means did captains of industry/robber barons increase their profits?


  1. What problems resulted from the consolidation of power among a select few?


  1. How did Robber Barons/Captains of Industry justify their wealth?


  1. What were the negative effects of urbanization?  Consider the boss system as well as life in the slums.


  1. How effective were early labor unions in combating widespread misery?


  1. Compare the motivations and methods used by progressive reformers in fixing the problems of the Gilded Age?


  1. How did W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington differ in how they believed African-Americans should attain equality?


  1. What were the positive and negative effects of railroad expansion?


  1. What effect did Western Expansion have on Native Americans?


  1. What attempts were made during the Gilded Age to regulate industry and politics?


  1. Compare and contrast the goals of the Granges, the Farmers’ Alliance, and the Populists?


  1. What types of people supported “free silver”?  Why?



American Imperialism


  1. Why did America adopt imperialistic policies in the last decade of the 19th century?  Why not before?


  1. In what ways could Cubans, Filipinos, and Hawaiians find fault with US foreign policy in the 19th Century?


  1. How did US policy toward Cuba and the Philippines differ? Why?


  1. What was the logic behind America’s Open Door Policy?


  1. What anti-imperialistic complaints were lodged against the building of the Panama Canal? Against the Spanish-American War?



Progressive Era


  1. How successful was the Progressive Movement? Why did the Populist Movement fail?


  1. What was the most known muckraking literature? What motivated “muckrakers”?


  1. Who were the key figures and what were the key issues in the early 20th Century women’s movement?


  1. What steps were taken to reduce corruption at the city and state level?


  1. What role did Presidents take in the Progressive Movement?







World War I and the Postwar Period


  1. What steps did America take to prepare economically for war?


  1. How did America become involved in World War I?  Why did they enter on the side of the British?


  1. What events helped change American public opinion from one of neutrality to one of intervention?


  1. To what extent were civil liberties abused during World War I?


  1. To what extent did the techniques and ideologies employed by the Committee on Public Information transfer afterward to the policies employed during the Red Scare?


  1. How did World War I affect African-Americans and women?


  1. What were Woodrow Wilson’s main goals in his Fourteen Points? To what extend were Woodrow Wilson’s idealistic views accepted by Americans and the world?



The Jazz Age/The Roaring Twenties


  1. In what ways did the policies of Harding, Coolidge and Hoover reverse the successes of the Progressive Era?


  1. What was the effect of the consumer products of the 1920s on social behavior?


  1. How did the Harlem Renaissance represent a shift in the role of African-Americans in society?


  1. How did the conflict between fundamentalism and modernism show that America was not ready for immigration, race relations, and social changes?



The Great Depression and the New Deal


  1. What were the primary catalysts of the Great Depression?


  1. How did the homeless and farmers respond to the Great Depression?


  1. What choices made by Herbert Hoover guaranteed that he would not be reelected in 1932?


  1. What choices made by Roosevelt improved the banking situation?


  1. How did Roosevelt respond to massive unemployment?


  1. What complaints did both conservatives and liberals have with Roosevelt’s policies?


  1. Why did Roosevelt attempt to “pack” the courts and what was the reaction to this choice?


  1. Why did America reenter a recession in 1937?


  1. In what ways was the New Deal successful?  Unsuccessful?



World War II


  1. How did America’s foreign policy toward Latin America change in the 1920s and 1930s?


  1. What choices were made during Roosevelt’s administration to keep America out of war?


  1. Though America was technically neutral, what choices showed that they truly were participating in the war?


  1. What events led to the attack on Pearl Harbor?


  1. How was 1944 a shift in where and how America fought Germany?


  1. How did government take more control of America’s economy during the war?


  1. In what ways was World War II a “total war” effort?


  1. What were the goals of Yalta and Potsdam?


  1. Why did America drop the atomic bombs?  Why was this choice criticized?



The Cold War to the Present


  1. What were the main foreign policy issues facing the US following World War II?


  1. To what extent were containment, NATO, and the Marshall Plan extensions of the Truman Doctrine?


  1. How did MacArthur and Truman differ on the handling of the Korean War?


  1. What international and domestic conditions led to the Red Scare of the 1950s?


  1. In what ways did Eisenhower’s “New Conservatism” translate to how the federal government dealt with labor relations?


  1. During the 1950s in what ways was America taking steps forward toward racial integration? In what ways was it not?


  1. What domestic policies did Eisenhower undertake during the 1950s?


  1. During the 1950s, in what ways did the US respond to the spread of Communism?


  1. In what ways did America respond to nationalism in Third World nations?


  1. What were links between Kennedy’s “New Frontier” and Johnson’s “Great Society”?


  1. How was Cuba the sight of Kennedy’s greatest foreign policy success and worst foreign policy fiasco?


  1. To what extent was Johnson more successful with his social programs than Kennedy?


  1. From the 1950s through the 1960s, how did the African-American methods of attaining equality evolve?


  1. Aside from African-American Civil Rights, in response to what other societal issues was the New Left formed?


  1. How did Johnson’s handling of Vietnam differ from that of his predecessors?


  1. Why was 1968 considered a turning point in US history?


  1. What strategy was employed by Nixon to end American involvement in Vietnam?


  1. What events led to Nixon’s resignation? In what areas was he successful?


  1. What foreign and domestic problems were blamed on Carter?


  1. How did Ronald Reagan take America out of its “national malaise”?


  1. What role in developing nations did the US assume during the 1980s?


  1. What were the negative effects of Reaganomics?


  1. In response to what circumstances was the New Right formed?