Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule
DSM-IV Version

Questions in the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule must be asked in the order they occur in the Schedule. All the items in the Schedule, including all the items in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for dissociative disorders, somatization disorder, and borderline personality disorder must be inquired about. The wording of the questions should be exactly as written in order to standardize the information gathered by different interviewers. The interviewer should not read the section headings aloud. The interviewer should open the interview by thanking the subject for his/her participation and then should say:

"Most of the questions I will ask can be answered Yes, No, or or Unsure. A few of the questions have different answers and I will explain those as we go along."

1. Somatic Complaints
1. Do you suffer from headaches? Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 1, go to question 3:
2. Have you been told by a doctor that you have migraine headaches?

Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

Interviewer should read the following to the subject:
"I am going to ask you about a series of physical symptoms now. To count a symptom as present and to answer yes to these questions, the following must be met:

a) no physical disorder or medical condition has been found to account for the symptom.

b) if there is a related general medical condition, the problems the symptom causes in terms of occupational or social impairment are more than would be expected.

c) the symptom is not caused by a street drug or medication."

Interviewer should now ask the subject, "Have you ever had the following physical symptoms for which doctors could find no physical explanation?"

The interviewer should review criteria a-c for the subject immediately following the first positive response to ensure that the subject has understood.

3. Abdominal pain (other than when menstruating)
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

4. Nausea (other than motion sickness)
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

5. Vomiting (other than motion sickness)
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

6. Bloating (gassy)
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

7. Diarrhea
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

8. Intolerance of (gets sick on) several different foods
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

9. Back pain
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

10. Joint pain
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

11. Pain in extremities (the hands and feet)
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

12. Pain in genitals other than during intercourse
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

13. Pain during urination
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

14. Other pain (other than headaches)
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

15. Shortness of breath when not exerting oneself
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

16. Palpitations (a feeling that your heart is beating very strongly)
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

17. Chest pain
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

18. Dizziness
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

19. Difficulty swallowing
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

20. Loss of voice
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

21. Deafness
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

22. Double vision
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

23. Blurred vision
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

24. Blindness
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

25. Fainting or loss of consciousness
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

26. Amnesia
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

27. Seizure or convulsion
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

28. Trouble walking
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

29. Paralysis or muscle weakness
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

30. Urinary retention or difficulty urinating
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

31. Long periods with no sexual desire
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

32. Pain during intercourse
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

Note: If subject is male ask question 33 and then go to question 38. If female, go to question 34.

33. Impotence
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

34. Irregular menstrual periods
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

35. Painful menstruation
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

36. Excessive menstrual bleeding
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

37. Vomiting throughout pregnancy
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

38. Have you had many physical symptoms over a period of several years beginning before the age of 30 that resulted in your seeking treatment or which caused occupational or social impairment?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

39. Were the physical symptoms you described deliberately produced by you?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

II. Substance Abuse

40. Have you ever had a drinking problem?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

41. Have you ever used street drugs extensively?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

42. Have you ever injected drugs intravenously?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

43. Have you ever had treatment for a drug or alcohol problem?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

 

III. Psychiatric History

44. Have you ever had treatment for an emotional problem or mental disorder?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

45. Do you know what psychiatric diagnoses, if any, you have been given in the past?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

46. Have you ever been diagnosed as having:
  1. depression [ ]
  2. mania [ ]
  3. schizophrenia [ ]
  4. anxiety disorder [ ]
  5. other psychiatric disorder (specify) [ ]
    Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

If subject did not volunteer a diagnosis for 46 (e) go to question 48.

47. If the subject volunteered diagnoses for (e), did the subject volunteer any of the following:

  1. dissociative amnesia [ ]
  2. dissociative fugue [ ]
  3. dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder) [ ]
  4. depersonalization disorder [ ]
  5. dissociative disorder not otherwise specified [ ]

Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

48. Have you ever been prescribed psychiatric medication?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

49. Have you ever been prescribed one of the following medications?

  1. antipsychotic [ ]
  2. antidepressant [ ]
  3. lithium [ ]
  4. anti-anxiety or sleeping medication [ ]
  5. other (specify) ________________________________ [ ]

Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

50. Have you ever received ECT, also know as electroshock treatment?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

51. Have you ever had therapy for emotional, family, or psychological problems, for more than 5 sessions in one course of treatment?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

52. How many therapists, if any, have you seen for emotional problems or mental illness in your life.
Unsure=89 [ ]

If subject answered No to both questions 51 and 52, go to question 54.

53. Have you ever had a treatment for an emotional problem or mental illness which was ineffective?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

IV. Major Depressive Episode
The purpose of this section is to determine whether the subject has ever had or currently has a major depressive episode.

54. Have you ever had a period of depressed mood lasting at least two weeks in which you felt depressed, blue, hopeless, low, or down in the dumps?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 54, go to question 62.

If subject answered Yes or Unsure, interviewer should ask, "During this period did you experience the following symptoms nearly every day for at least two weeks?"

55. Poor appetite or significant weight loss (when not dieting) or increased appetite or significant weight gain.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

56. Sleeping too little or too much.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

57. Being physically and mentally slowed down, or agitated to the point where it was noticeable to other people.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

58. Loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities, or decrease in sexual drive.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

59. Loss of energy or fatigue nearly every day.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

60. Feelings of worthlessness, self-reproach, or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

61. Difficulty concentrating or difficulty making decisions.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

62. Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, wishes to be dead, or attempted suicide.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If you have made a suicide attempt, did you:

  1. take an overdose [ ]
  2. slash your wrists or other body areas [ ]
  3. inflict cigarette burns or other self injuries [ ]
  4. use a gun, knife, or other weapons [ ]
  5. attempt hanging [ ]
  6. use another method [ ]

Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

63. If you have had an episode of depression as described above, is it: [ ]

  • currently active, first occurrence =1
  • currently in remission =2
  • currently active, recurrence =3
  • uncertain =4
  • due to a specific organic cause =5

V. Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia (Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms)

64. Have you ever experienced the following
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

  1. voices arguing in your head [ ]
  2. voices commenting on your actions [ ]
  3. having your feelings made or controlled by someone or something outside you [ ]
  4. having your thoughts made or controlled by someone or something outside you [ ]
  5. having your actions made or controlled by someone or something outside you [ ]
  6. Influences from outside you playing on or affecting your body such as some external force or power. [ ]
  7. having thoughts taken out of your mind [ ]
  8. thinking thoughts which seemed to be someone else's [ ]
  9. hearing your thoughts out loud [ ]
  10. other people being able to hear your thoughts as if they're out loud [ ]
  11. thoughts of a delusional nature that were very out of touch with reality [ ]

If subject answered No to all schizophrenia symptoms, go to question 67, otherwise, interviewer should ask:
"If you have experienced any of the above symptoms are they clearly limited to one of the following:"

65. Occurred only under the influence of drugs, or alcohol.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure= 3 [ ]

66. Occurred only during a major depressive episode.
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure= 3 [ ]

VI. Trances, Sleepwalking, Childhood Companions

67. Have you ever walked in your sleep?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure= 3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 67, go to question 69.

68. If you have walked in your sleep, how many times roughly?
        1-10=1 ; 11-50=2 ; >50= 4 ; Unsure=3 [ ]

69. Have you ever had a trance-like episode where you stare off into space, lose awareness of what is going on around you and lose track of time?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure= 3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 69, go to question 71.

70. If you have had this experience, how many times, roughly?
        1-10=1 ; 11-50=2 ; >50=3 ; Unsure=4 [ ]

71. Did you have imaginary playmates as a child?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure= 3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 71, go to question 73.

72. If you had imaginary playmates, how old were you when they stopped. Unsure=0 [ ]

If subject still has imaginary companions score subject's current age.

VIII. Childhood Abuse
Detailed and sensitive questions; omitted

VIII. Features Associated with Dissociative Identity Disorder
For questions 86-95, if subject answers Yes, ask subject to specify whether it is occasionally, fairly often or frequently, excluding question 93.

86. Have you ever noticed that things are missing from your personal possessions or where you live?
        Never=1 ; Occasionally=2 ; Fairly Often=3 ; Frequently=4 ; Unsure=5 ; [ ]

87. Have you ever noticed that there are things present where you live, and you don't know where they came from or how they got there? e.g. clothes jewelry, books, furniture.
        Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

88. Have you ever noticed that your handwriting changes drastically or that there are things around in handwriting you don't recognize?
        Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

89. Do people ever come up and talk to you as if they know you but you don't know them, or only know them faintly?
        Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

90. Do people ever tell you about things you've done or said, that you can't remember, not counting times you have been using drugs or alcohol?
        Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

91. Do you ever have blank spells or periods of missing time that you can't remember, not counting times you have been using drugs or alcohol?
        Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

92. Do you ever find yourself coming to in an unfamiliar place, wide awake, not sure how you got there, and not sure what has been happening for the past while, not counting times when you have been using drugs or alcohol?
        Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

93. Are there large parts of your childhood after age 5 which you can't remember?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

94. Do you ever have memories come back to you all of a sudden, in a flood or like flashbacks?
Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

95. Do you ever have long periods when you feel unreal, as if in a dream, or as if you're not really there, not counting when you are using drugs or alcohol?
        Never=1 Occasionally=2 Fairly Often=3 Frequently=4 Unsure=5 [ ]

96. Do you hear voices talking to you sometimes or talking inside your head?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 96, go to question 98.

97. If you hear voices, do they seem to come from inside you?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

98. Do you ever speak about yourself as "we" or "us"?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

99. Do you ever feel that there is another person or persons inside you?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 99, go to question 102.

100. Is there another person or person inside you that has a name?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

101. If there is another person inside you, does he or she ever come out and take control of your body?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

IX. Supernatural/Possession/ESP Experiences/Cults

102. Have you ever had any kind of supernatural experience?
Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

103. Have you ever had any extrasensory perception experiences such as:

  1. mental telepathy [ ]
  2. seeing the future while awake [ ]
  3. moving objects with your mind [ ]
  4. seeing the future in dreams [ ]
  5. deja vu (the feeling that what is happening to you has happened before) [ ]
  6. other (specify) _______________________________ [ ]

Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

104. Have you ever felt you were possessed by a:

  1. demon [ ]
  2. dead person [ ]
  3. living person [ ]
  4. some other power or force [ ]

Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

105. Have you ever had any contact with:

  1. ghosts [ ]
  2. poltergeists (cause noises or objects to move around) [ ]
  3. spirits of any kind [ ]

Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3

106. Have you ever felt you know something about past lives or incarnations of yours?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

107. Have you ever been involved in cult activities?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

X. Borderline Personality Disorder
Interviewer should state, "For the following nine questions, please answer Yes only if you have been this way much of the time for much of your life."

Have you experienced:

108. Impulsive or unpredictable behavior in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging, e.g., spending, sex, substance use, reckless driving, binge eating.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

109. A pattern of intense, unstable personal relationships characterized by your alternating between extremes of positive and negative feelings.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

110. Intense anger or lack of control of anger, e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

111. Unstable identity, self-image, or sense of self.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

112. Frequent mood swings: noticeable shifts from normal mood to depression, irritability or anxiety, usually lasting only a few hours and rarely more than a few days.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

113. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

114. Recurrent suicidal behavior, e.g., suicidal attempts, self-mutilation, or threats of suicide.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

115. Chronic feelings of emptiness.
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

116. Transient, stress-related paranoia or severe dissociative symptoms. [ ]
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If subject answered No or Unsure to question 116, go to 118.

XI. Dissociative Amnesia

117. Have you ever experienced inability to recall important personal information, particularly of a traumatic or stressful nature, that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

118. If you answered Yes to the previous question was the disturbance due to known physical disorder (e.g., blackouts during alcohol intoxication, or stroke), substance abuse, or another psychiatric disorder?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

119. Did the symptoms cause you significant distress or impairment in social or occupational function?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

XII. Dissociative Fugue
If subject answered No to one or both of questions 118 and 119, go to 121.

120. Have you ever experienced sudden unexpected travel away from your home or customary place of work, with inability to recall your past?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

121. During this period did you experience confusion about your identity or assume a partial or complete new identity?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

122. If you answered Yes to both the previous two questions was the disturbance due to a known physical disorder? (e.g., blackouts during alcohol intoxication or stroke)?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

123. Did the symptoms cause you significant distress or impairment in occupational or social function?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

XIII. Depersonalization Disorder

124. Interviewer should say, "I am now going to ask you a series of questions about depersonalization. Depersonalization means feeling unreal, feeling as if you're in a dream, seeing yourself from outside your body or similar experiences."

a) Have you had one or more episodes of depersonalization sufficient to cause problems in your work or social life?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

b) Have you ever had the feeling that your feet and hands or other parts of your body have changed in size?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

c) Have you ever experienced seeing yourself from outside your body?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

d) Have you ever had a strong feeling of unreality that lasted for a period of time, not counting when you are using drugs or alcohol?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If subject did not answer Yes to any of 124 a-d, go to question 127.

125. If you answered Yes to any of the previous questions about depersonalization was the disturbance due to another disorder, such as Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorder, or epilepsy, substance abuse, or a general medical condition?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

126. During the periods of depersonalization, did you stay in touch with reality and maintain your ability to think rationally?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

XIV. Dissociative Identity Disorder

127. Have you ever felt like there are two or more distinct identities or personalities within yourself, each of which has its own pattern of perceiving, thinking, and relating to self and others?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

If subject answered No to question 127, go to question 131.

128. Do at least two of the identities or personalities recurrently take control of your behavior?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

Interviewer should score question 129 based on the subject's response to Question 117, and should not read question 129 aloud.

129. Have you experienced inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

130. Is the problem with different identities or personalities due to substance abuse (e.g. alcohol blackouts) or a general medical condition?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

INTERVIEWER SHOULD NOT READ THE FOLLOWING 2 QUESTIONS ALOUD XV.
Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

131. Subject appears to have a dissociative disorder but does not satisfy the criteria for a specific dissociative disorder. Examples include trance-like states, derealization unaccompanied by depersonalization, and those more prolonged dissociated states that may occur in persons who have been subjected to periods of prolonged and intense coercive persuasion (brainwashing, thought reform, and indoctrination while captive).
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

XVI. Concluding Item

132. During the interview, did the subject display unusual, illogical, or idiosyncratic thought processes?
        Yes=1 No=2 Unsure=3 [ ]

Interviewer should make a brief concluding statement telling subject that there are no more questions, and thanking the subject for his/her participation.


Scoring The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule

The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), is divided into 16 sections. Each section is scored independently. All DSM-IV diagnoses are made according to the rules in DSM-IV.

There is no total score for the entire interview. However, average scores for 166 dissociative identity disorder (DID) subjects on selected subsections are given below (Ross et. al., Differentiating Multiple Personality Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, Dissociation, 5, 87-90, 1992).

Following presentation of scoring rules for each section, you will find a description of a typical profile for a DID patient. The DDIS has been administered to over 500 subjects with a confirmed false positive diagnosis of DID in 1% of cases. The sensitivity of the DDIS for the diagnosis of DID in 196 clinically diagnosed cases was 95.4%.

I. Somatic Complaints
This is scored according to DSM-IV rules. To receive a diagnosis of somatization disorder by DSM-IV rules one must be positive for a least four pain symptoms, two gastrointestinal symptoms and one sexual symptom and one pseudoneurological symptom:

  1. Pain - questions 9-14, 17, 32, 35
  2. Gastrointestinal - questions 3-8
  3. Sexual - questions 31, 33-37
  4. Pseudoneurological - questions 19-30

One must also answer "yes" to question 38 and "no" to question 39.

A history of somatization disorder distinguishes DID from schizophrenia, eating disorders, and controls, but not from panic disorder. The average number of symptoms positive from questions 3-37 for DID was 14.1. Out of 166 subjects, 39.8% met DSM-III-R criteria for somatization disorder: these data have not been reanalyzed by DSM-IV criteria.

  1. Substance Abuse

We score the subject as positive for substance abuse if he or she answers "yes" to any question in this section. A history of substance abuse differentiates DID from schizophrenia, eating disorders, panic disorder, and controls: 51.2% of 166 DID subjects were positive.

  1. Psychiatric History

This is a descriptive section that does not yield a score as such. In a questionnaire study (Ross, Norton, & Wozney, 1989) we found that in 236 cases of DID, the average patient had received 2.74 other psychiatric diagnoses besides DID.

  1. Major Depressive Episode

This is scored according to DSM-IV rules, which underwent only minor changes in wording from DSM-III-R. To be positive the subject must answer "yes" to question 54. He or she must answer "yes" to 4 questions from 55-62.

A history of depression does not discriminate DID from other diagnostic groups: out of 166 subjects, 89.8% had been clinically depressed at some time.

  1. Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms

In this section we score the total number of "yes" responses. The total number of Schneiderian symptoms positive discriminates DID from all groups tested including schizophrenia. The average number of positive symptoms in 166 subjects was 6.5.

  1. Trances, Sleepwalking, Childhood Companions

Each of these items is scored independently. The subject is positive for sleepwalking if he or she answers "yes" to question 67, positive for trances if "yes" to 69, positive for imaginary playmates if "yes" to 71. Each of these items discriminates DID from schizophrenia, eating disorder, panic disorder, and controls.

VII. Childhood Abuse
The subject is scored positive for physical abuse if he or she answers "yes" to question 73. Other data are descriptive. A history of physical abuse discriminates DID from schizophrenia, eating disorders, and panic disorder.

The subject is positive for sexual abuse if he or she answers "yes" to question 78. Sexual abuse also discriminates DID from the other three groups. Out of 166 subjects 84.3% reported sexual abuse, 78.3% physical abuse, and 91.0% physical and/or sexual abuse.

  1. Features Associated with Dissociative Identity Disorder

The responses in this section are added up to give a total score. A positive response in this section is either "yes" or else "fairly often" or "frequently," depending on the structure of the question. "Never" and "occasionally" are scored as negative. Secondary features discriminate DID from panic disorder, eating disorders and schizophrenia. The average number of features positive in 166 subjects with DID was 10.2.

  1. Supernatural/Possession/ESP Experiences/Cults

In this section the positive answers are added up to give a total score. These experiences discriminate DID from the other groups. The average number of positive responses for 166 subjects was 5.3.

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder

This is scored by DSM-IV rules. The subject must be positive for 5 items to meet the criteria for borderline personality. Borderline personality does not discriminate DID from other groups tested to date, except for panic disorder and controls. However, the average number of borderline criteria positive does discriminate DID from schizophrenia, eating disorders, and panic disorder. The average for 166 DID subjects was 5.1.

  1. Dissociative Amnesia

This is scored by DSM-IV rules. The subject must be positive for question 117, negative for question 118, and positive for question 119.

  1. Dissociative Fugue

This is scored by DSM-IV rules. The subject must be positive for questions 120 and 121, negative for 122, and positive for 123.

  1. Depersonalization Disorder

This is scored by DSM-IV rules. The subject must be positive for question 124a, negative for 125, and positive for 126. Questions 124b-d are examples of depersonalization that are not required for the DSM-IV diagnosis. This diagnosis discriminates DID from other groups very poorly.

  1. Dissociative Identity Disorder

This is scored by DSM-IV rules. The subject must be positive for questions 127-130 to receive a diagnosis of DID.

  1. Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

This is scored positive based on the interviewer's judgment. A patient can be positive for dissociative disorder not otherwise specified only if he or she does not have any other dissociative disorder.

  1. Concluding Item

This is a descriptive question and is not scored.

Most DID patients will exhibit the DDIS profile but some will score lower than usual in some or all sections.

Individuals with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified have the same profile, but to a lesser degree than those with full DID. It is not unusual for subjects to meet criteria for both dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder and to have elevated symptom profiles in the rest of the DDIS: these people usually have a chronic, complex dissociative disorder that is not well classified by the DSM-IV system. One might diagnose them as having a partial form of DID and classify them as dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, but this is not allowed by DSM-IV rules. One should bear in mind that subjects who are positive for dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder but negative for DID on the DDIS might actually have DID, in which case they have received a false negative diagnosis of DID from the DDIS.

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