Seven Visual PRINCIPLES

Line

hatch mark made on the image surface
 
Joseph Stella, Old Brooklyn Bridge
 
Suzuki Harunobu, Woman Admiring Plum Blossoms at Night, 1764-1770
Shape

two dimensions, enclosed area, defined by line, color, value, texture, space or form

Jacob Lawrence, Tombstones, 1942

Picasso, Les Desmoiselles d'Avignon, 1907
Form

appears as three dimensional, represents volume,

Cornelis Gijbrechts, Trompe L'oeil, 1675

Raphael, Madonna of the Chair, 1514
Value

changes in base color (light, medium, dark areas); highlights, mid-tones, and shadows can appear as different intensities of the same color



Vermeer,
The Geographer, 1668

Caravaggio,
Judith Beheading Holofernes, 1598-99
Texture

tactile quality of a surface; what it appears to feel like (actual, simulated, invented)

Hans Holbein, Sir Thomas More, 1527

Francois Gerard,
Napoleon in His Coronation Robes
Color

brain response to different wavelengths of light; three parts: hue (color name), intensity (strength or purity), and value (lightness and darkness)

Robert Motherwell, The Little Spanish Prison, 1941

Wassily Kandinsky, Autumn Landscape with Boats, 1908
Space

creation of visual perspective, illusion of depth; apparent distance around, between, above and within an object or group of objects

Raphael, School of Athens, 1509

Vittore Carpaccio, Saint Augustine in His Study, 1502

 

 

Seven ELEMENTS of Art

Balance

arrangement of elements to create a sense of visual stability
 
DaVinci, Symmetry of Man, 1492
 
Roger van der Weyden, Deposition, 1430s
Focal Point

area of interest that receives the most viewer attention; combination of elements directs viewer to this portion of the image

Michelangelo,
The Creation of Adam, 1508-1512

Boris Kustodiev, Bolshevik, 1920
Gradation

transitions between elements

Jan Van Eyk, Arnolfini Wedding, 1434

Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942
Movement

how the viewers eye moves through a piece; artist may use action, perspective

Caravaggio, The Taking of Christ,

Henri Matisse, The Dance, 1910
Proportion

elements are combined to create size relationships

Mantegna, Dead Christ, 1500

Michelangelo, Pieta, 1499
Rhythm

repeated elements create visual tempo, creates visual unity

Artist Unknown
Shiva Nataraja (Lord of the Dance)

Degas, Dancers in Blue, 1899
Variety

contrasting elements are combined to create visual interest; relationship between figures and background

Monet, Impression Sunrise, 1873

Leonard DaVinci, Mona Lisa, 1505-1514